Larix decidua (European Larch)

Plant Info
Also known as: Common Larch
Family:Pinaceae (Pine)
Life cycle:perennial woody
Habitat:sun; old settlement sites, landscape plantings
Bloom season:April - May
Plant height:30 to 100 feet
Wetland Indicator Status:none
MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):Minnesota county distribution map
National distribution (click map to enlarge):National distribution map

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Detailed Information

Flower: Flower shape: indistinct

[photo of male strobili] Male and female flowers are cone like structures called strobili, both borne on separate branches of the same tree (monoecious). Both male and female cones form at the tips of short, spur-like lateral shoots on young branches. Males are globular to oblong, 1/8 to 1/6 inch long, with creamy white pollen sacs with a loose collar of brown, papery scales.

[photo of female strobili] Female strobili are erect, egg shaped in outline, ¼ to 2/3 inch long on a short, curved stalk, often emerging within a cluster of leaves, the 40 to 50 cone scales are egg-shaped to oblong with an abrupt taper to a pointed tip, greenish to yellowish often edged with pink to deep rose red.

Leaves and stems: Leaf attachment: alternate Leaf type: simple

[photo of leaves, single at branch tips, clustered below] Leaves are needle-like in dense clusters of 20 to 65 (+75) at tips of short, spur-like lateral branches, or singly on new shoots, soft but straight, somewhat flattened, ½ to 1½ inch long, the tip blunt or tapered to a point. Needles turn yellow in fall and drop off.

[photo of twig] First year twigs are straw-colored to tan, turning grayish brown, bark becoming rough with brownish gray flaky scales. The crown is irregularly pyramidal, the branches on older trees often drooping. The trunk can reach 3 feet or more diameter at breast height (dbh).

Fruit: Fruit type: seed without plume

[photo of maturing fruit] Fruit is an egg shaped cone, ¾ to 1½ inch long with 40 to 50 spreading, hairy scales with wavy edges. Cones ripen to brown the first year, shedding the winged seed by late October. On young forming cones, scales are oblong with the tips sharply recurved at the tips.


European Larch was introduced to the US from northern and central Europe where it is primarily an alpine species. It has only occasionally escaped and become naturalized throughout New England, the upper mid-west into Minnesota. Certainly not a widely popular landscape species, it is more likely to be encountered in formal plantings in urban areas, though I have run into it in both a metro nature center and a state park on the north shore that appear to be from earlier home site plantings. It is readily distinguished from the native Tamarack (Larix laricina), which has smaller cones (¾ inch or less), orange-brown twigs, ascending to spreading branches, and needles mostly less than 1 inch long with fewer than 45 in a bundle, where European Larch cones are about twice the size, new twigs are a paler yellowish to tan, branches are often drooping, and needles are mostly 1 inch or longer with up to 75 in a bundle.

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More photos

Photos courtesy Peter M. Dziuk taken in Hennepin and Lake counties.


Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it?

Posted by: Jessy Carlson - Duluth - Rice Lake Road and Hwy 61
on: 2018-07-11 18:12:11

For the past 2 days, while driving on the highway (and unable to pull over for closer inspection), I've been seeing several pockets of a tree that lookslike either Norway Spruce or maybe European Larch. All I can tell from the road at speed is that it has drooping pendulous branches. I'm hesitant to ID it as either species because I'm seeing so many of them, and both the Norway spruce and European larch are not super common in our area - correct? Is there some other conifer that has pendulous branches or branchlettes? I'm seeing it on upland slopes AND in low wet spots.

Posted by: Charles argue - St. Paul
on: 2019-07-10 23:36:31

There is one by the waterfalls in Como Park across the road from the pavilion.

Posted by: Laverne Dunsmore - Winona, MN
on: 2021-04-25 18:30:45

Back in the 1970's I was shown a monster Larix decidua tucked in a ravine at St. Mary's Cemetery in Winona. The branches were stout enough to climb up the tree without fear of breaking. This same cemetery hosts many other trees such as the Tulip Tree. I speculate that this area, being a river town, was planted with many unusual species brought over by early settlers.

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