Phleum pratense (Timothy)
|Also known as:|
|Habitat:||part shade, sun; disturbed soil; fields woodland edges, roadsides, embankments, vacant lots|
|Fruiting season:||June - August|
|Plant height:||12 to 40 inches|
|Wetland Indicator Status:||GP: FACU MW: FACU NCNE: FACU|
|MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):|
|National distribution (click map to enlarge):|
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Single, slender spike 2 to 4 inches long, occasionally up to 6 inches long, at the top of the stem. Densely crowded on the spike are single spikelets (flower clusters), each containing a single flower. The glumes (pair of bracts at the base of a spikelet) are equal in length, generally oblong, flat or rounded at the top, keeled (ridged) along the back with long spreading hairs along the keel and short, fine hairs on the edges. At the tip of the keel is an awn 1/3 to ½ the length of the glume body. Glumes are 3 to 4 mm long including the awn. The lemma (bract surrounding the flower) is much shorter than the glume, broadly oval, distinctly veined with a few teeth at the tip end. The short, pale yellow to creamy white stamens and feathery styles poke out the top of the spikelet.
Leaves and stems:
5 or 6 leaves are alternately arranged on the stem, mostly flat, and hairless. Lower leaves are up to 20 inches long, up to 1/3 inch wide, and ascending to flopping, becoming shorter and more erect as they ascend the stem with the uppermost leaves as little as 4 inches long.
The sheath is open with a distict “V” at the front and a narrow band of white edging. The ligule (membrane where the leaf joins the sheath) is white and 2 to 5 mm long, ragged along the top, and joins the edging of the sheath. Nodes are smooth. The culm (stem) is mostly erect and unbranched, and hairless but rough textured near the spike. Plants form loose to dense clumps but may be single.
Timothy was an agricultural crop from Europe that escaped cultivation and is now widespread across North America. It generates large amounts of pollen and is a bane for allergy sufferers during its long flowering period. There are 2 subspecies (or varieties, depending on the reference), though they do not appear to be universally recognized and there is little documented on distinguishing characteristics; subsp. pratense is found in Minnesota and the rest of North America.
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Photos by K. Chayka taken in Ramsey County. Other photos courtesy Peter M. Dziuk.
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