Juncus effusus (Soft Rush)

Plant Info
Also known as: Common Rush
Genus:Juncus
Family:Juncaceae (Rush)
Life cycle:perennial
Origin:native
Habitat:part shade, sun; moist to wet; shores, ditches, meadows, marshes, swamps, open woods
Fruiting season:June - July
Plant height:16 to 48 inches
Wetland Indicator Status:GP: OBL MW: OBL NCNE: OBL
MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):Minnesota county distribution map
National distribution (click map to enlarge):National distribution map

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Detailed Information

Flower: Flower shape: 6-petals Cluster type: panicle

photo of primary bracts] Branching cluster at the top of the stem, the branches ascending to spreading with numerous flowers, the cluster compact or open and loose. The cluster is subtended by an erect bract that is round in cross-section and appears to be a continuation of the stem, with the cluster erupting from the side of the stem. The bract is several times longer than the cluster and up to 1/3 as long as the stem.

[photo of flower cluster] Flowers are numerous, single, not in heads of 2 or more, on stalks of varying lengths, with 6 tepals (petals and similar sepals) in 2 layers, 1.9 to 3.5 mm long, the inner and outer tepals about equal in shape, sharply pointed at the tip, and the inner tepals slightly shorter than the outer. Tepals are green along the midrib with a light to medium brown stripe along either side and translucent, white papery edging. Flowers have a 3-parted style and 6 yellow stamens, the anthers (tips) about as long as the filament (stalk).

Leaves and stems: Leaf attachment: basal Leaf type: simple

[photo of clumped stems and basal sheaths] A flowering stem has no leaves to speak of, just one to several bladeless sheaths at the base. Sheaths are reddish to brown at the base and green to brown above. Stems are medium green, round in cross-section, smooth but with numerous longitudinal ridges, erect, unbranched, and create dense clumps from short rhizomes.

Fruit: Fruit type: capsule/pod

[photo of fruit] The tepals persist and become light brown and slightly spreading in fruit. Fruit is an oval-elliptic, 3-chambered capsule 1.5 to 3.2 mm long, brown when mature, as long as or slightly shorter than the tepals, rounded at the tip, sometimes with a minute beak at the top. Inside the capsule are numerous tiny seeds, about .5mm long, amber colored when mature, with no elongated tails.

Notes:

Juncus effusus is a circumpolar species, native to much of North America as well as Europe and Asia. There are 3 Juncus species in Minnesota that have a lateral cluster with the bract appearing to be a continuation of the stem. Neither of the other two, Juncus arcticus and Juncus filiformis, are strongly clump-forming but are rhizomatous, forming colonies, and are typically fewer flowered. Juncus arcticus also has tepals that are often dark purplish brown with a green midrib and white edging, and larger fruits (3.5 to 4.5mm long); Juncus filiformis has a nearly round capsule and its bract is much longer, often longer than the stem. The taxonomy for some Juncus species is a bit confusing, including this one. USDA lists 9(!) varieties of Juncus effusus, 3 of which are supposedly present in Minnesota, but none of these varieties are currently recognized here. Flora of North America notes that the “Juncus effusus complex” is ripe for modern systematic scrutiny.

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More photos

Photos by K. Chayka taken in Ramsey County. Photos courtesy Peter M. Dziuk taken in Cass and Winona counties. Other photos courtesy Steve Eggers.

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