Carex rosea (Rosy Sedge)
|Also known as:||Starry Sedge, Curly-style Star Sedge|
|Habitat:||part shade, shade, sun; dro to moist soil; deciduous woods, mixed forest, wooded ravines|
|Fruiting season:||June - July|
|Plant height:||8 to 36 inches|
|Wetland Indicator Status:||GP: FACU MW: FACU NCNE: FACU|
|MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):|
|National distribution (click map to enlarge):|
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A cluster up to 2¾ inches long at the top of the stem, made up of 4 to 8 small spikes, those at the tip of the stem close to each other but not tightly crowded and the lower spikes all well separated from each other. All spikes are stalkless and have staminate (male) flowers at the tip and pistillate (female) flowers at the base (androgynous). At the base of each spike is a bristle-like bract, the lowest may be more leaf-like and may overtop the terminal spike.
Leaves and stems:
Leaves are basal and alternate along the lower third of the stem, the largest up to 16 inches long and 1.8 to 3 mm wide, mostly shorter than the flowering stems, initially erect becoming arching. Stem leaf sheaths tightly wrap the stem and are translucent whitish, concave to straight across at the tip. The ligule (membrane where the leaf joins the sheath) is wider than long. Leaves are hairless, V-shaped in cross-section when young.
A few old, dead leaves are usually persistent to the next season. Bases are wrapped in a brown sheath that may become fibrous with age. Stems are erect to ascending to prostrate, slender, up to 2.2 mm diameter at the base, 3-sided, rough textured on the upper stem, elongating up to about 3 feet at maturity. Plants are densely clump-forming and not colony-forming. At maturity, the whole plant may flatten out in a radiating pattern.
Fruit develops in late spring through early summer, the pistillate spikes forming clusters of seeds (achenes), each wrapped in a casing (perigynium), subtended by a scale. Pistillate spikes each contain 1 to 14 fruits that are spreading to reflexed (downward pointing). The remains of the slender styles tend to persist in fruit, though readily detach from the achenes; the 2 stigmas are short and twisted or coiled 1 to 3 times.
Pistillate scales are egg-shaped to nearly round, translucent white with a green midrib, blunt to pointed at the tip, awnless, and are half to 2/3 as long as the perigynia. Perigynia are 2.6 to 4(4.2) mm long, 1.1 to 1.8 mm wide, green to yellowish brown at maturity, hairless, thickened and spongy at the base, flattened on the back side, veinless except for several lines along the spongy base on the back side (best seen at maturity), generally lance-shaped in outline, widest at or below the middle, rounded to straight across at the base and gradually tapering at the tip to a short beak that has minute teeth along the edges and 2 small teeth at the tip. Achenes are 1.6 to 2.2 mm long, 1.1 to 1.6 mm wide, flattened lens-shaped, broadest above or below the middle, and mature to brown.
Carex rosea is a common sedge found in dry to mesic deciduous or mixed woods in the southern 2/3 of the state.
Carex is a large genus, with over 600 species in North America and 150+ in Minnesota alone. They are grouped into sections, the species in each group having common traits. Carex rosea is in the Phaestoglochin section; some of its common traits are: clump forming, basal sheaths usually fibrous, sheath fronts sometimes cross-wrinkled (rugose), leaves hairless and V-shaped in cross-section when young, 3 to 15 stalkless spikes (rarely the lower are branched), terminal spike with staminate flowers at the tip (androgynous), lateral spikes androgynous or all pistillate, perigynia ascending to spreading and flattened on the back side, rounded and spongy at the base, beaked, the beak usually toothed, flattened lens-shaped achenes.
Carex rosea is distinguished by the combination of: densely clump-forming, widest leaves 1.8 to 3 mm wide, up to 8 stalkless spikes with staminate flowers at the tip, spikes few-flowered and most widely separated, perigynia spreading to reflexed, 2.6 to 4+ mm long, spongy at the base, veinless except for lines on the spongy base, styles often persisting in fruit, the stigmas short and tightly coiled or twisted, and usually a woodland habitat.
Most similar is Carex radiata, which is overall less robust, has more numerous old persistent leaves, widest leaves are less than 2 mm wide, perigynia are slightly smaller (to 3.8 mm long), and the persistent stigmas are longer and more or less straight. When styles are missing check the leaf width and the presence of old, dead leaves for a determination. The arrangement of C. rosea perigynia is similar to some members of the Stellulatae section, which have staminate flowers at the base of a spike (gynecandrous) rather than the tip (androgynous).
Carex radiata and Carex rosea have a convoluted history. At one time we had C. rosea and C. convoluta, then C. rosea became C. radiata and C. convoluta became C. rosea (there should be a law against reusing names like that!). There is currently a mix-up of old Herbarium records for these two species and the distribution maps reflect that confusion. Someone will have to examine the old specimens and make new determinations before this is straightened out and the distribution within the state corrected.
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- Carex rosea plant
- Carex rosea plant
- Carex rosea plant
- Carex rosea woodland habitat
- more spikes
- close-up of mature spike
- comparison of Carex radiata and Carex rosea perigynia
Photos by K. Chayka taken in Fillmore and Jackson counties. Photos by Peter M. Dziuk taken in Carver, Jackson and Wabasha counties.
Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it?