Aquilegia canadensis (Red Columbine)
|Also known as:||Wild Columbine|
|Habitat:||part shade, shade, sun; rocky woods and slopes, cliffs, bluffs|
|Bloom season:||May - July|
|Plant height:||1 to 3 feet|
|Wetland Indicator Status:||GP: FAC MW: FACU NCNE: FACU|
|MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):|
|National distribution (click map to enlarge):|
Pick an image for a larger view. See the glossary for icon descriptions.
Open, branching cluster of hanging, bell-shaped flowers at the top of the plant. The upside-down flowers have 5 yellow petals each rolled into a column and forming a long, red, hollow spur at the top. 5 flaring, red, petal-like sepals alternate with the spurs. A bundle of long, yellow stamens hangs down from the bottom of the bell. Flower is 1 to 2 inches long from the tip of the spur to the tip of the stamens.
Leaves and stem:
Leaves are compound in groups of 3, basal and alternating up the slender stem. Leaflets are up to 2½ inches long and wide, notched and/or lobed in 2 or 3 segments, on short stalks, the lobes and notches rounded at the tip. Leaves in the flower clusters are reduced to bracts, stalkless or nearly so, and may be more elliptic without lobes or notches. The stem may be slightly hairy, especially on the upper part of the plant.
5 to 7 erect, green capsules, each ½ to 1 inch long with the remains of the spur forming a “tail” at the top. The capsules split open at the side to release many shiny, round seeds.
This is a great plant, gorgeous color in spring and early summer and popular with pollinators as well. It does very well in a home garden, preferring shadier sites but does tolerate sun. In restoration areas where overgrown, wooded areas had been cleared, it is not surprising to see Columbine persisting in open prairie when other shade-tolerant species disappear. While the flowers are easily recognizable, the leaves resemble those of some related species, in particular Early Meadow Rue (Thalictrum dioicum), which has leaflets less than 1 inch long that are compound in 3s or 5s and longer stalked.
Please visit our sponsors
Native Plant Nurseries, Restoration and Landscaping Services ↓
- Columbine in woodland habitat
- Columbine in open, rocky prairie
- Columbine on a rock face
- garden-grown Columbine
- underside of a flower
- early growth
Photos by K. Chayka in Chisago and Ramsey. Other photos courtesy Peter M. Dziuk.
Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it?
on: 2009-06-14 19:38:56
I have quite a few of these growing wild around my house in Scandia. Some volunteer right in the middle of a rocky path. Is there a trick for successful transplanting?
on: 2010-05-05 02:45:45
First buds arrived 5/1 along wooded trail leading to lake.
on: 2010-05-06 17:00:29
I have a few of these in my yard but none are blooming. Down around the marsh behind my house there is a small area where I have found at least 15 that are blooming and many more that are not. They are beautiful.
on: 2010-05-14 21:08:09
We took a walk on a park trail 5/14/10 and saw some Columbine. My sisters and I are obsessed with nature, so seeing this was like a dream come true! We took lots of pictures and then went home to identify it. It turns out, I had done a report about MN wildflowers so I knew all about them. They are SO beautiful!
on: 2010-05-24 15:22:01
tons of these blooming right now!
on: 2010-06-27 17:56:40
I saw some blooming along a bike path near Big Bog Lake.
on: 2011-05-13 16:54:01
Spotted a bloom begin to open today in the wooded area near the creek.
on: 2011-05-25 18:55:16
Found some beautiful blooms in a wooded area near a golf course.
on: 2011-05-27 20:43:44
These are starting to open...the hummingbirds are standing in line.
on: 2011-05-31 16:18:17
Blooming on the river banks.
on: 2011-06-11 15:32:06
These are abundant in the woods behind the barn just up from the creekbed.
on: 2011-07-15 13:43:16
Lots of this in the woods in Kaposia Park and Simon's Ravine Park in South St Paul. It was also very common in northern Minnesota (Voyager's National Forest, Chippewa National Forest, BWCAW) where I grew up.
on: 2011-07-25 00:42:05
We spent time as children at a family cabin on Elk Lake, and these grew freely in the light woods. We loved to eat the flowers because of the sweet nectar. But we learned to be careful of the bees - they liked it too!
on: 2012-04-09 08:21:06
I suddenly have these flowers growing on our patio and garden. Not sure what has caused them to make an appearance now (we have lived here for 5 years) but I was curious when I first saw the interesting leaves growing. I decided to wait to see what became of the plant and was pleasantly surprised to see these flowers bloom.
on: 2012-05-11 15:16:49
Found a columbine while on a walk through the woods on our land. Didn't know what it was until I came to this site and was able to identify it. What an amazing-looking little flower. Praise God for His beautiful creation!
on: 2012-05-16 19:40:44
Found plenty blooming right along the path. Very beutiful flowers.
on: 2012-06-04 19:24:42
We have lots of them here. They are indeed very beautiful.
on: 2012-07-22 17:14:41
We hiked the Caribou River trail and Temperance State Park last week and they were in bloom. Beautiful flowers.
on: 2014-05-26 22:14:44
Saw about a dozen of these in bloom on May 26.
on: 2014-05-29 21:00:57
We just noticed two plants in our yard. It's a relief to see something native blooming among the creeping charlie, dandelions, honeysuckle, lilac, and plantain!
on: 2016-05-26 12:38:40
Have beautiful white in my side garden and neighbors' Had to look it up to verify what it was.
on: 2016-07-04 21:40:50
I was very surprised to find just a couple of these growing next to the trail. I didn't know they were native and had assumed they got transplanted by birds or something from someone's garden. Nice to know they are native!
on: 2017-04-08 02:22:02
We have a single plant that comes back every year with no assistance! The flowers are the neatest creation I have ever seen. I collected seeds last year and have a couple of new gardens for them to move to this year. Should see them breaking through very soon.
on: 2018-05-23 12:55:34
Many of these blooming on May 18th along the west face of the central ridge. It's an area that TNC has been clearing of woody veg (sumac, aspens, buckthorn) and the columbine was persisting happily despite full sun.
on: 2018-05-24 13:08:08
The Columbine is in bloom along the bike trail. train tracks and, the Minnesota river, Its my favorite
on: 2018-06-01 17:39:31
One lone plant, a volunteer, is in full bloom by the county highway just north of town. What a surprising delight standing above the edge of a newly planted agricultural field!
on: 2018-06-06 15:42:41
They grow in Cass County MN
on: 2018-06-15 05:43:22
On June 13, 2018 I saw the Red Columbine growing on a live viewing cam on explore.org while observing the baby falcons located on a cliff called Great Spirit Bluff. It is overlooking Lock & Dam #7 on the zoomed in on the columbine near the nest box. Viewers have the capability to observe nature and take snapshots in real time. https://files.explore.org/sn/2018/06/13/w/038891925.jpg
on: 2018-06-22 20:13:33
Found a few if these lovely Red Columbine plants growing in a rocky beach area by Lake Superior next to the Lutsen Resort Sea Villas. What a beautiful surprise. There were several plants growing right out of the spaces between the rocks down by the lake. What a find!
on: 2019-05-28 14:58:50
Spotted a couple of these in the woods, only 5'-7' off the path to the first playground area of Long Lake Park in New Brighton. A great spot for morning sun; fully shaded by afternoon. A beautiful touch of red in the wash of new green growth!
on: 2019-06-07 06:31:09
Sweet edible bloom for your salad!
on: 2019-06-18 23:42:23
Sweet edible bloom for your salad!
on: 2020-03-23 03:41:22
Used to be common in our woods in Apple Valley, but the deer and the Buck-Thorn have done them in for the most part. We had a tall form that grew over four feet tall, they liked stony ground under trees, and as kids we used to eat the "horns" were the nectaries were because they were sweet. Likely was not a good idea because the genus has a few toxic chemicals in it. Loved by hummingbirds and small bees, also not as prone to leaf minors as none native Aquilegia. It does hybridize with other related Aquilegia but the hybrids are not as attractive.
on: 2020-05-24 06:15:51
Always showy flower like them, May 22, 2020.
on: 2020-05-26 13:48:13
I saw this flower in Ramsey Park down by the falls and I thought it was very pretty
on: 2021-05-08 16:55:31
Gorgeous, Deep Red flower! Very Tall, on the side of a rocky hill.
on: 2021-05-19 15:54:34
We have one or two of these in our garden, but I've never seen successful seedlings elsewhere in our yards.
on: 2021-05-19 17:01:43
Ellen S., it may take a few years before they take off. I only had a few plants in my garden to start, but after about 5 years they exploded and ended up everywhere!
on: 2021-05-31 19:26:04
Over the years I have seen these along road sides. This spring we have one growing next to our cabin besides a deck.
on: 2021-07-17 16:54:40
One place that I often saw these growing was North of Duluth off of the Pequaywan Lake Road around Briar Lake at the family cabin about 1969. They were fairly common there and I expect they still are. Naturally one or two moved to my parents' yard in Duluth where a few currently grow. It's easy enough to collect a few dry Columbine seed pods (before they split open) and start your own population somewhere else.
on: 2022-05-30 17:37:02
We have seen tons of wild columbine this last week in our woodland area on Lake Miltona. So pretty and first year I've seen them appear in numbers!