Leucanthemum vulgare (Ox-eye Daisy)
|Also known as:||Common Daisy, Marguerite|
|Habitat:||part shade, sun; disturbed soil, fields, along roads|
|Bloom season:||June - August|
|Plant height:||1 to 3 feet|
|Wetland Indicator Status:||GP: UPL MW: UPL NCNE: UPL|
|MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):|
|National distribution (click map to enlarge):|
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A single flower 1 to 2 inches across is at the end of a long, mostly naked flower stalk at the top of the stem, sometimes also arising from uppermost leaf axils. Flowers have 15 to 35 white petals (ray flowers) and a golden yellow button shaped center disk, up to ¾ inch across. The bracts surrounding the base of the flower are in 2 to 4 layers and are green with dark purplish-brown edging.
Leaves and stem:
Basal and lowest stem leaves are up to 5 inches long and ¾ inch wide, generally spoon to spatula shaped with narrow lobes or large teeth and a long stalk. Leaves become smaller, more linear-oblong, and stalkless as they ascend the stem. Stems are multiple from the base (up to 40), seldom branched, angled or furrowed, and mostly hairless. Large colonies can form from creeping rhizomes.
The center disk becomes a head of dry, brown, ribbed seeds that lack tufts of hair. Each flower produces up to 200 seeds.
Ox-eye Daisy, formerly known as Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, is easily recognizable, commonly found in gardens all across the US. It was brought over from Europe in the 1800s, escaped into the wild and has become an aggressive, invasive breeder, often seen along roadsides, trail edges, in old fields and other disturbed soils. The leaves easily distinguish this species from others with similar flowers. Leucanthemum vulgare is one of the parents of Shasta Daisy, a popular garden plant that is reputed to lack the invasive tendency of its parent. Time will tell.
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- Ox-eye Daisy plants
- invasion of Ox-eye Daisy
- Ox-eye Daisy with invasive Hawkweeds and Tall Buttercup
- bracts around a flower bud
- basal leaves emerging in spring
Photos by K. Chayka taken in Aitkin and Ramsey counties. Other photos courtesy Peter M. Dziuk.
Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it?