Monotropa uniflora (Indian Pipe)

Plant Info
Also known as:
Family:Ericaceae (Heath)
Life cycle:perennial
Habitat:part shade, shade; moist rich woods, acidic soil, often under pines
Bloom season:June - September
Plant height:4 to 10 inches
Wetland Indicator Status:GP: UPL MW: FACU NCNE: FACU
MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):Minnesota county distribution map
National distribution (click map to enlarge):National distribution map

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Detailed Information

Flower: Flower shape: 5-petals Flower shape: bell

[photo of flower] Single flowers ½ to 1 inch long nod bell-like from the end of each stem. The 4 to 6 (usually 5) translucent white petals are barely discernible from the reduced sepals and faint, scale like leaves that fall over the flower head. All parts of this frail, ghostly plant blacken quickly from bruises and the dry air. 

Leaves and stem: Leaf attachment: alternate Leaf type: simple

[photo of leaves] Leaves are non-functional and have reduced down to frail, lose scale-like appendages along the stem and are less than one inch in length. Stems occur singly or in dense clusters from the roots, break easily when new, and are translucent white like the flowers.

Fruit: Fruit type: capsule/pod

[photo of fruit] During seed set and capsule formation, stem dries down to a twig-like stalk with an upturned seed capsule that can persist into the next growing season.


This species can be found throughout the forested eastern half of Minnesota and I've observed them frequently throughout my woodland wanderings. Like its closely related species, Hypopitys monotropa (Pinesap), it produces no chlorophyll, and like fungi, is not dependent upon light and can thrive in the shadiest of places. Since it cannot produce its own food it is sustained by the green plants around it. This relationship is not direct as its roots cannot directly tap into the food resources of other plant roots. The transfer is facilitated by mycorrhizal fungi that connect into both host and recipient roots and carbohydrates are passed along. This fungi dependent relationship is called mycotropism.

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More photos

Photos by K. Chayka taken in Cass County. Photos by Peter M. Dziuk taken at Savanna Portage State Park.


Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it?

Posted by: Amanda - Star Island, Cass Lake
on: 2010-07-20 19:17:47

I saw some of these growing on the South Shore Campground and near the canoe storage at Camp Unistar on Star Island in Cass Lake

Posted by: Lynn - Bemidji
on: 2010-08-19 11:01:12

I thought it was a mushroom and included it my 'Northwoods Schrooms' YouTube. I took some nice closeups. What a curious plant it is!

Posted by: Steve - Boundary Waters - near Oyster, Hustler, Finger Lakes
on: 2010-10-22 12:36:12

Our group saw two or three clusters of these around the 4th of July 2010, two days after heavy amounts of rain. Like Lynn, we thought they were mushrooms as first. Good thing we didn't touch them. I hear they are very delicate.

Posted by: Kathryn - Whitewater State Park on the Dakota Trail, western wooded ri
on: 2011-08-17 18:55:08

We saw 3 freshly up clusters on the Dakota Trail. 6 different mushroom species were nearby. Aug. 16, 2011.

Posted by: Bob - Elko/New Market - just south of Burnsville
on: 2011-09-17 21:39:48

My two sons and I were building a fort out in the woods when this plant caught my eye. I've never come across this and I grew up in these woods. Thank you for the information on this plant.

Posted by: Jane - stillwater washington county
on: 2012-02-22 14:01:50

wow i always though that they where a fungus of some type

Posted by: Sue - the BWCA - Cherokee Lake
on: 2013-08-14 18:54:45

Saw a clump of these near a campsite on Cherokee Lake in the BWCA.

Posted by: erinn - north dakota
on: 2013-11-28 12:02:45

i am flabbergasted i love this plant it looks so cool

Posted by: kris - Fairview Township
on: 2014-07-10 20:53:08

Found this hiking through the woods on private property 3 yrs ago. Wish I had a landmark to find it again. But had my camera!

Posted by: Bill - grand marais
on: 2014-08-03 17:46:04

Just found a number of these just outside of town.

Posted by: Julia - North of Spring Grove near Yucatan
on: 2014-08-12 07:32:08

I saw a group of three or four of these yesterday while clearing brush along the roadside.

Posted by: Bonnie - Crosslake
on: 2014-08-19 16:04:25

We found many of these amazing flowers scattered in clumps in the Uppgaard WMA in Ideal Corners near Crosslake. I also expected them to be in the mushroom family.

Posted by: Keith - Rice County, Faribault, MN
on: 2014-09-05 16:18:31

On 9/5/2014, I found and photographed Indian Pipe during a hike through the Faribault Nature Center. The recent wet weather has produced a boom in different species of mushrooms. I also saw dozens of different species of mushrooms during a recent hike through Father Hennepin State Park but no Indian Pipe. The plants in the Faribault Nature Center were growing under oak trees in the leaf litter. It is definitely an interesting plant!

Posted by: Kim - Chisago County, Lent Township
on: 2014-09-08 10:17:32

We have several clumps of these growing on our property, under a stand of white pine and oak.

Posted by: luciearl - Lake Shore, MN
on: 2015-07-12 12:07:54

I don't know if conditions were prime last year, but found in several locations in nearby wooded area.

Posted by: cheryl - elm creek regional park
on: 2015-07-22 01:43:35

This are up now in Elm Creek park reserve. Some good patches of these. I was thinking these were fungi!

Posted by: Kevin - Andover Mn
on: 2015-09-03 09:50:45

This years growth was not as good as last year. They are in the pine straw in the shadiest part of my lot. There were both pink and white last year, only white this year.

Posted by: Karen - Grace Lake near Bemidji
on: 2016-07-17 19:23:05

Today was the first time I've seen them in our yard at the cabin! It's been a wet spring/summer.

Posted by: Connie - Lost 40. Itasca County
on: 2016-07-20 13:55:59

First time I've ever seen this plant, other than in books!! Very, very interesting ! Lots of shade, lots of decaying trees.

Posted by: peg - Cascade River trail
on: 2016-08-05 04:04:33

Saw this morning along the Cascade River Trail near Grand Marais. First time I ever saw one! Heavy rain earlier in the day.

Posted by: mick - Lake Kangas
on: 2016-08-10 13:21:49

A friend pointed out the Ghost Plant to me, on a walk toward a hiking trail of Superior National Forest not far east of the lake. The lake is in the vicinity of Wolf Ridge near Finland, MN

Posted by: Kit - Norway Pine grove near Nisswa
on: 2016-08-15 11:50:37

We saw several clusters this morning, August 15, 2016.

Posted by: Andy - North East Cook County
on: 2016-08-19 00:18:56

found by lake next to a rotting log not to far from a white pine

Posted by: JF - Tettegouche State Park
on: 2016-08-25 12:01:53

Two Step Falls trail in Tettegouche State park

Posted by: Judith - Chubb Lake, Farmington, MN
on: 2016-08-30 15:36:50

Found this plant in the "fruiting" stage last week at Chubb Lake where we were visiting friends who own property on this lake. I have a picture to verify. Judie

Posted by: Karin - Cannon Falls
on: 2016-09-04 20:19:14

Found many clusters (> 40 in several locations) under oaks and maples on our farm near Sogn Valley in Goodhue County.

Posted by: Cynthia - Kilen Woods State Park, Lakefield MN
on: 2016-09-05 07:35:40

The campground host and I saw Indian Pipe along the trail, just off the trail actually. I have taken photos and posted to the Minnesota State Parks website. I observed them 9/03/16.

Posted by: Tina - Breezy Point
on: 2017-05-18 16:32:33

I had this in my backyard in 2014. I didn't know what it was at the time and ended up mowing over it. I've looked for it on our property every summer since and haven't found it.

Posted by: Dawn - Pine City MN
on: 2017-07-24 09:38:28

Thinking this was some type of mushroom I took some photos of this and sent them to MN Conservation Volunteer. They informed me it is a wild flower and not a mushroom. They are really cool!

Posted by: Katie R - Belle Prairie County Park, Morrison County
on: 2017-07-25 16:40:50

Belle Prairie Park is situated within the Anoka County Sandplain. The park is managed by Morrison County in partnership with Great River Greening in an effort to restore oak savanna. As a lifelong resident of the area, today was the first time I've seen Indian Pipe growing at this location.

Posted by: Joanne G - Spring Grove (far southeast corner of Minnesota
on: 2017-07-27 12:39:22

Our woods are north facing, dense, and full of springs. I was searching for new specimens of fungi and I ran across a single Indian pipe plant. There probably are more.

Posted by: Christine F - Ely
on: 2017-08-03 13:18:37

I found them on a side trail near the Trezona.

Posted by: Kathy - Pequaywan Lake Northeastern Minnesota
on: 2017-08-06 09:39:00

We have quite a few Indian Pipe plants in our backyard. The first time I noticed them was about four years ago. They have not came up every year. When they dry up they turn black. The dried up ones from last year are still standing.

Posted by: Mary - Baxter
on: 2017-08-20 19:04:13

I have a lot of this in my yard right now, never saw it before and suddenly it's coming up in patches all over the place. Spectacular. We have sandy soil, well shaded, heavily vegetated with jack pine, red pine, and hazelnut. Also plenty of puff ball mushrooms this year, other fungi I've never seen before.

Posted by: Jon - Detroit Lakes
on: 2017-08-24 10:44:09

I came across a tight cluster of about 12 by the side of the path that I have walked for 50 years, never seen these before. I have good pictures.

Posted by: Barb s - Superior National Forest, Bass Lake Trail, Dry Lake Loop.
on: 2017-08-24 19:49:03

Very interesting looking plant,kind of alien looking. Caught our attention!

Posted by: Beth J - Mankato
on: 2017-09-04 00:03:04

Top of a section of ravine behind Minnesota State University, Mankato. Not too far from a mowed area into a mix of hardwood and cedar.

Posted by: Tina C - Grand Portage State Park
on: 2017-09-19 10:10:45

We saw two of these near the boardwalk on our way back from a hike and not far from the visitors canter. They were in the thick of the forest undergrowth yet very visible!

Posted by: Blake - Lutsen
on: 2017-09-24 19:16:44

Noticed this little beauty on the ski trails in Cascade River State Park in late September. They were growing in a very wet forested area.

Posted by: luciearl - Lake Shore
on: 2018-06-21 07:44:59

I've seen this for years, but didn't realize until last year, they are completely upright near end stage. They it was a different plant. Some pink and some white.

Posted by: Jean Cruson - Perham
on: 2018-07-02 16:24:25

I found them while out in the woods on our property. A treasure to find for sure.

Posted by: Fran Duffee - Grand Rapids
on: 2018-07-27 21:24:32

First time ever seeing this plant - other than pictures - found plants in several locations aling the "River Walk" at the Minnesota History Forest Center. There are many large red and red pines in the area.

Posted by: Bob Fulton - Camp Ajawah, Linwood Lake, Anoka County
on: 2018-08-05 07:02:41

I saw a patch of these this morning near the path by the lake, below the Lodge. I've heard of these since I was a kid, but I'd never seen any until today.

Posted by: Chelsea - Eagle Mountain Trail & Grand Portage State Park
on: 2018-08-14 21:13:07

I saw these during our hike up Eagle Mountain and also along the Middle Falls Trail at Grand Portage State Park.

Posted by: Jesse - Superior Hiking Trail North of Crystal Creek campsite
on: 2018-08-22 12:02:50

Saw these on the superior hiking trail, thought they were fungus, with strange white stems and olive and smokey yellow colors it was quite striking. I have never seen these before, but they seem quite common.

Posted by: Jessica - Byron, MN
on: 2018-08-29 22:25:24

Spotted these beauties last week and this week at Oxbow Park in southern MN--a surprising find here! In very moist deciduous forest and not under pines. Only one very small section of the trail that they are appearing on, but there were more this week (Aug. 29th) than last!

Posted by: Sandy - Schoolcraft State Park
on: 2019-07-29 10:21:21

First time I've seen them and had to post a picture on the KAXE-KBXE Season Watch Facebook page to have someone identify for me. What a unique plant!

Posted by: Angela Dahlby - Great River Bluffs State Park
on: 2019-10-07 20:09:20

On trail between south overlook and campgrounds in hardwood forest

Posted by: Freddie Baudat - Cascade River State Park campground
on: 2020-01-15 21:00:44

Interesting plant! I came upon it in the woods near my campsite September 2019 at Cascade River State Park.

Posted by: Sherman - Duluth - A woodsy neighborhood in Duluth
on: 2020-07-20 19:34:14

July 20. 2020. Having something of a drought in the months before July, then recently some thunderstorms and several inches of rain on several occasions, two small clusters of these appeared in their usual spots underneath a small birch tree in a front yard two houses down the avenue from my house. Some years they don't make an appearance, some years they do. They're in the lawn about 15 ft. off the road. In past years, I've also seen several clumps of them around the corner and 270 feet up the street from my house, at the edge of the woods.

Posted by: Jane Johnson - Tofte
on: 2020-07-24 18:43:11

Just emerging along the road on our property in Tofte.

Posted by: Marcie - Duluth
on: 2020-07-25 12:28:49

My husband noticed a little patch in our woods yesterday. We've never seen Indian Pipe before and were excited to have something so interesting growing in our yard. We will watch for them again, especially after a few days of rain.

Posted by: Colleen - Afton State Park
on: 2020-08-01 16:10:20

I saw quite a few bunches of these at Afton State Park August 1st, 2020. Seemed to be very happy growing in thick beds of Oak leaves

Posted by: Cynthia - Baudette
on: 2020-08-11 16:05:11

We found these delicate beauties in our yard under heavily shaded white pine, they sprung up after some very dry weather followed by a drenching rain. A lovely and interesting plant which I had never seen before.

Posted by: Megan Hashizume - Excelsior
on: 2020-08-23 15:05:42

We see them every year in an old wood forest on the south west side of lake mtka near a marsh. They just started coming up about a week ago and there tend to be a dozen or two clusters depending on the year. A welcome sight each August.

Posted by: Paul August Jasmer - St. John's Abbey and University, Collegeville MN
on: 2021-05-28 16:30:08

In August 2020 I saw a clump of monotropa uniflora in Beltrami Co. near Swenson Lake (about 10 miles east of Bemidji), and took a good photo of them.

Posted by: Peter - Carver County
on: 2021-06-30 06:28:36

I found one of these a few years ago growing at the base of a sugar maple on the edge of a lake. Super interesting little plant! I thought it was some sort of fungus at first. I also saw some last year at Afton State Park.

Posted by: Peter - Carver County
on: 2021-07-01 21:23:53

I found one of these a few years ago growing at the base of a sugar maple on the edge of a lake. Super interesting little plant! I thought it was some sort of fungus at first. I also saw some last year at Afton State Park.

Posted by: Ronald Johannsen - Trenton Lake Freeborn co.
on: 2021-10-14 11:09:01

Seen at different times always catches the eye, odd & different.

Posted by: Sherece Cocco - Sturgoen Lake
on: 2021-10-26 22:11:12

I found these on my property. I live on the western edge of General CC Andrew's forest. So beautiful.

Posted by: Dan Bera - Hines
on: 2022-08-10 20:20:22

I guess we are to call this `ghost plant `. We find it blooming now along most trails at. NEILSON SPEARHEAD CENTER.

Posted by: Arceus - Sakatah State Park
on: 2022-09-03 20:38:44

Spotted some nice clusters of these in the picnic area of Sakatah State Park on September 3rd, 2022, under hazelnuts. Quite the treat to see them outside of my college textbook for the first time!

Posted by: Sandra Bell - Central Minnesota, Princeton 55371
on: 2022-09-04 10:46:16

I have seen this plant down our road here in Princeton, Mn. First time I have seen one. Very unique.

Posted by: JON NICHOLSON - New Hartford Twp., Winona County
on: 2022-09-05 22:08:54

I came across a group of maybe 2 dozen clumps of multiple plants today. They were growing under several white pine trees that were planted 23 years ago on a north-facing slope. Heavy shade from the trees and some undergrowth. Very evocative of silence and mystery.

Posted by: Amy - Plymouth, county road 47, Lake Camelot Park trail
on: 2022-09-09 01:14:19

I found a patch of these near the walking path not far from the Lake Camelot kids park right off co rd 47. So cool!

Posted by: Diane Johnson - Northshore scenic overlook near Silver bay
on: 2023-07-23 21:57:09

This amazing flower caught my eye along the scenic overlook path...what a N intriguing find!

Posted by: Dylan Baron-Lussier - Coon Rapids
on: 2023-07-30 18:15:45

Are there any gardens that have them for sell in Anoka? This plant would be nice to have for my bugout bag

Posted by: K Chayka
on: 2023-07-30 18:33:29

Dylan, this is very difficult to propagate, if not impossible, requiring very specific soil and fungal conditions to germinate and grow. You won't find it commercially available for that reason. Transplanted plants inevitably die so don't bother taking any from the wild.

Posted by: Laura - Red Wing
on: 2023-09-20 20:47:36

Spotted something white on the floor of deciduous woods in Red Wing on August 30, 2023. Discovered small colony of Ghost Pipe. Had previously only seen one plant in 2021 in different area of our property. Drought conditions both summers.

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