Epipactis helleborine (Helleborine)

Plant Info
Also known as: Broad-leaved Helleborine
Genus:Epipactis
Family:Orchidaceae (Orchid)
Life cycle:perennial
Origin:Europe
Habitat:part shade, shade; moist to dry; disturbed soil, deciduous woods, woodland edges, along streams, roadsides
Bloom season:July - August
Plant height:1 to 3 feet
Wetland Indicator Status:GP: FACU MW: FACU NCNE: UPL
MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):Minnesota county distribution map
National distribution (click map to enlarge):National distribution map

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Detailed Information

Flower: Flower shape: irregular Cluster type: raceme

[photo of flowers] Up to 50 irregular, stalked flowers are loosely to densely arranged in a spike-like raceme at the top of the stem. Flowers are ½ to ¾ inch across, the lower petal forming a bowl that is constricted near the tip end; the 2 lateral petals are broadly egg-shaped with pointed tips, flaring out above the yellowish center column. Petal color is rather variable and ranges from pale yellow or green to pink to deep reddish purple, usually streaked with darker purple veins. 3 light green sepals, also often with purplish streaks, and as long as or longer than the petals, form a triangle behind the flower. A leaf-like bract is at the base of each flower stalk. The flower cluster first emerges drooping, becoming erect as the buds mature.

Leaves and stems: Leaf attachment: alternate Leaf type: simple

[photo of leaves] Leaves are 1½ to 6 inches long, ½ to 3 inches wide, oval to lance-elliptic with pointed tips, toothless and hairless with prominent parallel veins and slightly wavy edges, and clasping the stem. The lowest leaf is smaller than those above it, then they gradually become smaller and proportionately narrower as they ascend the stem, reducing to bracts in the flower cluster. The stem is light green and covered in short hairs.

Notes:

This is the first non-native orchid to be found in the wild in Minnesota and is listed as an invasive species in Wisconsin, where I've seen thousands of plants carpeting a forest floor in Door county. This is definitely one to watch, and likely best eradicated before it has a chance to become invasive here. While the leaves are similar to our native Lady's-slipper orchids, the flowers are distinctly different than any of our natives. A special thanks goes to Ken Arndt and Critical Connections Ecological Services for guiding us to the first known location of this species in Washington County.

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More photos

Photos by K. Chayka and Peter M. Dziuk taken on private property in Scandia, Washington County.

Comments

Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it?

Posted by: Kelsey - Hennepin county
on: 2015-07-29 19:14:34

I work for a small restoration company and we found a very small population of this plant on a restoration easement in Minnetonka

Posted by: Suzy - Rochester
on: 2016-07-17 10:37:47

Found in my planting beds...took a very long time to bloom and only a few got that far due to deer or rabbits. Sad to discover that my first orchid needs to be eradicated.

Posted by: Holly E - Chaska
on: 2017-07-26 15:27:16

Saw quite a few of these at the Arboretum, along the start of the Ridge Trail just east of the Snyder Building. Wondering if I should go ahead and remove them (with the blessing of Arb staff, of course).

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2017-07-26 20:04:11

Holly, the Arb knows about the helleborine and has begun spraying it. Hopefully they'll get it taken care of.

Posted by: Mark Kjolhaug - Freeman Park, Shorewood
on: 2018-07-24 08:49:38

Found a single flowering plant along trail in the woods. Is there anything native I could confuse with Helleborine?

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2018-07-24 17:39:44

Mark, there are a number of native woodland orchids with a spike-like raceme but none have quite the same coloration or flower shape.

Posted by: Helen Foster - Falcon Heights, University Grove
on: 2019-07-19 14:58:03

In 2009, I found one in a garden bed on my property. This week (a decade later), I found another in a very distant bed from the first. My first orchids and they're not only alien but also invasive. Sigh!

Posted by: Bobby H. - Cass Co. Ottertail Point
on: 2020-01-22 06:50:53

In August 2019 I unexpectedly observed numerous plants in bloom in the Ottertail Point area on the north end of Leech Lake. It was rather alarming considering the remoteness of the location.

Posted by: Mark Kjolhaug - Shorewood
on: 2020-06-26 13:48:14

I have identified this plant again this year in a couple of locations in Shorewood. Is this something the DNR tracks? Is there a reporting contact? Thank you.

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2020-06-26 14:58:59

Mark, no one is tracking this plant, though they should. BTW, the MN Dept of Ag is the agency generally in charge of weeds, rather than the DNR. I suggest reporting the sightings yourself at EDDMapS, where many weeds in the state are tracked. It may get someone's attention.

Posted by: Dale Blount - Itasca County, near Bowstring Lake
on: 2020-07-26 07:45:40

Visiting a friend who took me around his undeveloped property. Found 12 plants in two locations approximately 50 yards apart. Both locations within 10 yards of road.

Posted by: Amanda - Minnetonka
on: 2020-07-30 14:33:57

It has been found at 2 parks in Minnetonka

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