Parthenium integrifolium (Wild Quinine)

Plant Info
Also known as: American Feverfew
Genus:Parthenium
Family:Asteraceae (Aster)
Life cycle:perennial
Origin:native
Status:
  • State Endangered
Habitat:sun; dry to average moisture; remnant prairies, savannas, along railroads
Bloom season:June - September
Plant height:1 to 3 feet
Wetland Indicator Status:none
MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):Minnesota county distribution map
National distribution (click map to enlarge):National distribution map

Pick an image for a larger view. See the glossary for icon descriptions.

Detailed Information

Flower: Flower shape: 5-petals Cluster type: flat Cluster type: panicle

[photo of flowers] Compact, flat-topped branching clusters of short-stalked flowers at the top of the plant and arising from the top-most leaf axils. Flowers are white, ¼ to 1/3 inch across, with 5 (sometimes 6) short, widely spaced rays (petals) around a white, dome-shaped center disk, the disk flowers covered in short hairy scales. Dark brownish-black styles poke out from the ray and disk flowers. The bracts are pale green to white, short hairy on the outer surface. Flower stalks are also short-hairy.

Leaves and stems: Leaf attachment: alternate Leaf attachment: basal Leaf type: simple

[photo of stem leaves] Leaves are generally lance to egg-shaped, coarsely toothed and crinkly or wavy around the edges, the surfaces mostly rough textured. Basal leaves are up to 12 inches long and 5 inches wide and have long stalks that are typically winged. The alternate stem leaves become smaller and shorter stalked as they ascend the stem, with the uppermost leaves stalkless and sometimes clasping. Stems are round or faintly ribbed, usually smooth on the lower plant and rough, short hairy in the upper, and unbranched except in the flower clusters.

Fruit: Fruit type: seed without plume

[photo of developing fruit] Flowers turn brown as fruit develops. Fruit is a black seed, without a tuft of hair at the top but sometimes with a few awns.

Notes:

Wild Quinine is easily identified by its flowers, which are pretty unique compared to other Minnesota species. While it may be found planted in parks and restored natural areas, Minnesota is on the northwest tip of its natural range and it's rarely found in the wild except along protected railroad rights of way and a few prairie and savanna remnants in the southeast counties. According to the DNR, it was listed as an Endangered species in 1984, largely due to habitat loss from agriculture.

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More photos

Photos by K. Chayka and Peter M. Dziuk taken at Iron Horse Prairie, Dodge County.

Comments

Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it?

Posted by: Robert - Shooting Star SNA near LeRoy
on: 2015-06-19 17:18:17

Plant fiting discription fully growing in this SNA

Posted by: Patrick - Lake Elmo, Washington County
on: 2016-06-14 11:20:34

Many plants blooming now in my 2 acre restoration. It took over 5 years to bloom from when it was planted.

Posted by: Kenny h - Mower county Shooting Star Trail
on: 2017-06-15 10:10:08

Wild Quinine can easily be found along the Shooting Star Trail, and Scenic By way, railroad prairie remnant.

Posted by: Aaron - Ramsey County
on: 2017-10-13 14:51:52

One plant growing in a prairie restoration plot at UMN - St. Paul campus

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