Petasites frigidus (Sweet Coltsfoot)
|Also known as:||Artic Sweet Coltsfoot, Arctic Butterbur, Palmate Sweet Coltsfoot, Arrow-leaved Sweet Coltsfoot, Grape-leaved Sweet Coltsfoot|
|Habitat:||part shade, sun; moist to wet; meadows, woods, swampy places|
|Bloom season:||May - June|
|Plant height:||6 to 24 inches|
|Wetland Indicator Status:||GP: FAC MW: FACW NCNE: FACW|
|MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):|
|National distribution (click map to enlarge):|
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A round topped cluster, 3 to 4 inches across, of creamy white to pinkish flower heads on a sturdy, erect stem emerges from the ground well before the leaves. Plants are mostly dioecious (either male or female) though some heads may be mixed. Female flowers have 2 to 140 short rays (petals), depending on the variety.
Male flowers have dozens of thread-like petals mixed with stamens, all about the same length. The heads are ½ to ¾ inch across on long stalks, those in the center of the cluster are shorter stalked and develop before the outer flowers and those lower on the stem. Bracts are often purplish or purple tipped.
Leaves and stems:
Leaves on the flower stem are narrowly lance shaped and stalkless becoming smaller, bract-like in the flower cluster. Like the stem and flower stalks they are sparsely hairy that diminishes with age. Basal leaves emerge directly from underground colonial root system in coarse rosettes, typically off to the side of flowering stems on a sturdy, upright stalk (petiole). These leaves are generally large, up to 15 inches across though those we've observed in Minnesota are typically half this size or less.
The leaf stalk and undersides are densely covered with white, woolly hairs (tomentose), especially when younger, the upper surface sparsely hairy becoming smoother with age. The shape is highly variable as per the three recognized varieties; broadly arrowhead shaped (var. sagittatus), those round in outline with 5 to 11 deep sinuses with the finger lobes also lobed (var. palmatus), and forms midway between these two with broader, shallower lobes (var. X vitifolius). The blades can be quite wavy and the edges range from smooth to coarsely and sharply toothed.
The fruit or seed heads have long, silky, white hairs on the seeds giving the cluster an appearance of a dense ball of cotton when mature.
Sweet Coltsfoot is an early riser in northern Minnesota and, in spite of large colonies when other vegetation has yet to emerge, they are often overlooked due in part to the shorter stature of the flower cluster at a time when fewer people are out and about. The seed heads develop quickly and they become more noticeable getting up to a full 24 inches, with their large cottony heads and large colonies of silver, leathery leaves.
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- basal leaves var. sagittatus
- basal leaves, var. palmatus
- basal leaves, var. X vitifolius
- Sweet Coltsfoot plants
- Sweet Coltsfoot plants
- Sweet Coltsfoot swampy habitat
- Sweet Coltsfoot woods habitat
- pinkish flowers
- developing fruit
Photos courtesy Peter M. Dziuk taken in Beltrami, Cass, Kittson and Roseau counties, MN, and in Washington state. Photo by Eugene Reimer ©2003 ereimer.net. Photo by James Gaither licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic License.
Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it?
on: 2014-01-23 21:29:31
Definitely have seen it in Morrison County around Little Falls. Had no idea about the variety. I'll look next growing season.
on: 2015-05-10 21:15:34
I have the palmatus variety...in a wooded, shady area. Anxious to see if they come up early this year.
on: 2015-05-10 22:50:57
Spotted by my son today, and few basal leaves coming up nearby looked like var. palmatus. I have seen them on the first part of the Dr. Roberts Trail in Itasca State Park in the past.
on: 2016-05-03 12:50:03
Found these on the back trail leading away from the Headwaters. Very pretty little flowers, although something had eaten the leaves entirely away.
on: 2017-08-17 08:16:20
I notice that, consistently, in the willow carrs project that I am currently working on, Petasites frigidus var. sagittatus is consistently and frequently found in low-lying, wet places ... often on tussocks or hummocks with a lot of standing water between. Petasites frigidus var. frigidus has *only* been seen on the upland inclusions.
on: 2018-05-09 14:11:31
We have the Sweet Coltsfoot growing abundantly in front of our home where we had it logged off last year. I had never noticed them before.
on: 2018-11-24 19:08:55
These three varieties are quite distinct and occupy distinct habitats as well. var. sagittatus is restricted to saturated wetland soils while var. palmatus is more likely in upland moist forests and sometimes in wetlands. I've never found var. sagittatus in upland habitats. var. X vitifolius is more likely to be found along upland/wetland interfaces.
Also, var. X vitifolius can backcross with either of the parent varieties and result in a wide array of intermediate leaf forms.
on: 2019-05-04 09:51:34
I've been seeing these flowers for years by low, wet areas near Mirror Lake between Togo and Effie, but I didn't realize there were three varieties with different basal leaves. Two years ago one came up in a flower bed where I had previously transplanted a fern from the woods. It was amazing to see what a thick, strange-looking stem it had to begin with. I got some interesting photos unlike any I had seen in books. I looked for them on April 28, 2019, but the area where I had found them was flooded with last year's grass sticking up from the water. I'll look again Memorial Day. Thanks for the help in identification.
on: 2019-05-15 08:00:26
Found a few patches of the palmatus variety in a newly logged area in south-east St. Louis County last week. What an early bloom! (First week of May)
on: 2019-05-16 21:27:24
Noticed these blooming in a low wet area of our property on May 13. Have never seen them before and were pleased that we could identify them here.
on: 2019-05-21 20:50:25
Found several batches of these in the road side ditches where there is water near my home. Beautiful.
on: 2020-04-27 12:48:55
Blooming on 4/26/2020 in a recently logged aspen stand. There were ~ 20 plants originally, but the deer ate all but a few.
on: 2021-05-10 09:00:18
very shady, but last summer somewhat opened up do to beavers in the farm pond that is 20 feet from where the flowers appeared, moist but not wet soil, 10" tall, 8 plants, May 10,2021
on: 2021-05-16 07:28:57
On May 14, 2021 my husband and I took a drive. I'm not sure what variety as I didn't notice leaves growing around it. I found them on the edge of the dirt road in two different places. The road had been graded so maybe that's why I didn't see the leaves. Never seen it before so I did get some nice photographs of it.
on: 2021-05-16 12:22:01
I just moved to this property and am delighted by the flowers I've found so far. Had no idea what this plant was and this website helped me identify it. Blooming 5-16-2021. It was not showing last week at all. Thank you
on: 2021-06-08 11:15:04
There have been wildflowers appearing in a wood lot behind our house since the blowdown a few years ago. The palmatus variety has been popping up there. I'll have to look earlier in the season for flowers.